The introduction to the report by Parks Canada called, Unearthing the Law: Archaeological Legislature on Lands in Canada was a good insight into archaeological evidence that support the fact that people lived in Canada long before European settlers and uses helpful examples to explain these ideas. It uses archaeological evidence (on land) to show that groups of people lived in different areas of North America at different times in history. The goal of this report was to better understand North America’s history as a whole. The report is very comprehensive and well organized; if you are interested in archaeology in its relation to Canadian history, this is a good report to read.

“For at least the first 20 millennia of human occupation in Canada, no written records were kept to describe lives and events. Even after the arrival of writing, records were usually sparse in describing how our ancestors lived. Sometimes, major events were commemorated in oral traditions; but memories often fade, particularly in details of how the vast majority of any given population lived day to day. Nonetheless, Canada still has powerful tools to illuminate its own roots. Archaeological resources are Canada’s archive of its ancient and historic past.”

Here is the link to the introduction of the report:

In-depth Post 3: Running Start to Finish


Updates and Changes

Over the past few weeks I have been contacting local running clinics, contacting local marathons and races, making a training schedule, reading training books, and asking friends and family for help finding a mentor. After contacting local running clinics as well as a few places that are holding marathons and races; I have made a few more changes to my in-depth. Instead of training for a full marathon, I will train for a half. This will allow me to train with a clinic, have more ease in finding a mentor, and be able to participate in more races close to home on the weekends. Though I had my heart set on running a marathon, there are not a lot of local options; and going to Green River in Washington for a marathon can get expensive especially when I have to pay for transportation, overnight stay, and the marathon itself. I think that this decision is more realistic, but may not be as big of a challenge. I think that I will continue to train very hard and may use this training for a half marathon as a stepping stone to doing a full marathon. There are a lot of all-age marathons; these are marathons without time limits, but there are no all ages marathons near Vancouver or within the timeframe of in-depth.

It has been a rollercoaster these past few weeks looking for a mentor. I thought that Brian O’Neil, an old rock climbing instructor of mine and Take a Hike instructor currently; however, after some complications it turns out that he cannot mentor me anymore. After Brian could no longer be my mentor I called and e-mailed some local training clinics, but no clinics would allow me to train with them for a full marathon. Now that I am only training for a half marathon, I hope that some of the clinics I contacted earlier will now accept me. Though I still do not technically qualify by regular standards for a half marathon, I will by the time I will be running them, so I hope that I can still train with a running clinic and find a mentor through the running clinic. I have contacted the running room and kinetic as they are my top two choices. If those do not work out, then I will continue to contact other clinics on my list.

Athletics Canada Youth Age Recommendations

Age Maximum Distance
12 and Under 1K – 2K
13   8K
14   10K
15   10K
16 21.1K
17 21.1K
18 42.2K


Progress Report

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This is the book I am currently reading. Image sourced from:

For the past two weeks I have been contacting local running clinics, contacting local marathons and races, making a training schedule, reading training books, asking friends and family for help finding a mentor, and training independently.  I have created a running schedule after reading John Stanton’s Running Start to Finish. The book has been very helpful and has helped me get into the training mind-set. I particularly enjoyed the chapters on heart rate training, cross training, and running injuries. This book contained a lot of helpful advice, and I would recommend it to anyone who would like to improve at running. Ms. Leblond recommended it to me and I am very happy that I got the chance to read it. Up until this week, I was actually on a marathon training schedule in hopes that I may still be able to complete the full marathon. However, this week I have dialed it back to half marathon training and it has been going very well. Because of the weather I have been running inside on the treadmill, but I hope to get back outdoors soon. I have so far not been fruitful in finding a mentor, but I hope that my adjusted goal will allow for me to find a mentor with more ease. I have looked into signing up for the MEC race series, and can still participate in most races except for the 55 km and the 42.2 km races. I have decided to sign up by the race so that I can mix and match road races and trail races to have a variety. Doing these races will help set benchmarks for my training. Most of the races are on Sundays, so it works with my schedule; there are multiple half marathon races available and I am thinking about attempting to do more than one so that I can improve my time. However, as of right now, I am using a four-month training program to get to a two-hour half marathon time. The schedule may change quite a bit in the future, but I hope to stick to it. This week I only trained on Monday and Tuesday (instead of Tuesday and Wednesday) but did not train on Wednesday or Thursday. It has been a busy week and though it may be okay to miss some runs, I definitely need to do my speed and hill runs as well as my endurance runs. I think that making a concrete schedule will help to keep me accountable.

Monday (rest) Tuesday Wednesday (speed and hills) Thursday Friday (rest) Saturday Sunday (endurance)
Week 1 Off 4 k 3 k 4 k Off 3 k 7 k
Week 2 Off 4 k 3 k 4 k Off 3 k 7 k
Week 3 Off 3 k 4 k 3 k Off 4 k 7 k
Week 4 Off 4 k 4 k 4 k Off 3 k 9 k
Week 5 Off 5 k 3 k 5 k Off 3 k 9 k
Week 6 Off 4 k 3 k 4 k Off 4 k 10 k
Week 7 Off 4 k 4 k 4 k Off 4 k 10 k
Week 8 Off 4 k 5 k 4 k Off 5 k 12k
Week 9 Off 4 k 6 k 4 k Off 5 k 14 k
Week 10 Off 5 k 7 k 5 k Off 6 k 16 k
Week 11 Off 5 k 8 k 5 k Off 6 k 16 k
Week 12 Off 5 k 7 k 5 k Off 6 k 12 k
Week 13 Off 6 k 7 k 6 k Off 6 k 18 k
Week 14 Off 6 k 7 k 6 k Off 6 k 18 k
Week 15 Off 6 k 7 k 6 k Off 6 k 20 k
Week 16 Off 10 k 6 k 10 k Off 3 k 6 k


Difficulties / Goals

I have had a lot of difficulties finding a mentor, so that has been my biggest goal so far. I know that last year finding a mentor was one of the hardest things, but it made it worth it in the end. I hope that after changing my goals to something more realistic that I will be accepted by a training facility and that I can find a mentor through that facility. Training has also obviously been difficult as it is very time consuming. Instead of spending about an hour a week on in-depth, I am spending close to three hours a week currently. I have not had any issues with the running itself however, but if I do run into problems I will be more prepared after reading about how to optimize running. For this week, I hope to contact running clinics again to see if they will accept me now. I will continue to train, look for possible mentors in the community, and read about training strategies.

A Beautiful Mind

Though I do not have a mentor yet, I found this week’s passage from A Beautiful Mind very interesting. I liked that it included communication strategies like ways of sharing information, offering possibilities, asking questions and making connections with the things around you; these strategies could apply to many types of conversations. I really enjoyed the parts where it stressed the importance of talking about your passions to people who are knowledgeable on the topic, and people who don’t know a lot on the topic. Both situations are learning opportunities for everyone involved and I think that I will keep that in mind the nest time someone asks me about my in-depth project. I am quick to brush off talking to people about topics they may not know a lot about as I think that they wont care very much, but this passage made me realize that it is a learning opportunity for me and the person I am talking to. This week we were asked to try and do the following:

  • #6 To find and make connections that link matters together and generates interest.
  • #10 To explore, to elaborate and to pull interest out of the matter.
  • #3 To use the “what if” statement to get to new lines of thought.
  • #2 to ask for clarification whenever you are unclear or in doubt about something the mentor tells you or shows you.
  • # 5 to share a personal story that illustrates the conversation topic.
  • # 10 to modify an idea to make it more acceptable to yourself and to make it stronger or more practical.

Though I may not be able to use these strategies with my mentor, I can use them while talking to people in everyday life, talking to my old mentor using these strategies, and using these strategies in phone conversations while trying to find a mentor. I think that sharing a personal story that illustrates my passion for running may be very helpful in convincing a running clinic to accept me at my age.



I think that I have made a lot of progress over the past few weeks even though I have re-directed my project again. I am happy that I did make a change to my project because I was having a very hard time with age-restrictions before; I hope that now it will be less of an issue. I am very happy about the training program, it is very exciting for me to be on this journey, already on week two of training! I am very excited for in-depth now that I have found the right parameters for my project; however, I do hope to find a mentor soon as I think that a mentor would be very helpful to the training process. My in-depth project started out rocky with a few project changes happening over the course of the past few weeks; however, I now feel like I am on track to achieving my goal! I hope that everyone’s in-depth projects are going well and that everyone gains something new from their projects!



As I described in the post above, I have had trouble finding a running clinic and a mentor for my in-depth project. However, after visiting some running clinic’s store fronts; I had some success. I am legible for the Kinetic running clinic program as long as an adult accompanies me.  I have signed up for the program with my mum and we will start the week after next. I hope to find a mentor through the running clinic, however, a family friend has also offered to mentor me. I would prefer to work with a professional in the community, but I think that someone with reasonable expertise that can keep me accountable would also be good enough. I am very happy that I have remained persistent and found a clinic that works well for me. The advise from the A Beautiful Mind about sharing a personal story that illustrates passions was helpful in convincing the running clinic to accept me at my age. I am very happy that I went into those locations and knew what I was going to say to put my best foot forward and try to join the running clinic. Though the Running Room did not accept me, I think that it just made getting accepted by Kinetic even better. I am very happy with the progress I have made in the last week.

Training has also gone well, though I sometimes skip weekday training I am happy that I have kept up with training on the weekends. I am very excited to soon begin training with a clinic and hopefully I can soon begin to train with a mentor.

On Cultural Transmission, Development, and Attachment

Socials So Far

To start off the social studies semester, we have been looking at Canadian history; specifically, the history of First Nations, Aboriginal, and Métis in Canada. We have discussed a lot of questions so far including: What is cultural genocide? What are the aspects of cultural genocide? How did Canada commit cultural genocide? Why is cultural transmission valued and why is its disruption so bad? What is the Truth and Reconciliation Commission? What is the Mandate of the TRC? Why is reconciliation important? What are the key components of reconciliation? I have learned a lot about Canada’s dark past, its implications, what we are doing now to right wrongs, and about the difference between the values of the Canadian settlers and the values of the Aboriginal peoples. However, at certain times, I have had a hard time connecting on a personal level to the topics we discussed in class. I have a hard time imagining the country that accepted my family and I with open arms 12 years ago, could have committed such atrocities against Canadian Aboriginals. I find it hard to imagine the version of Canada does not have the same emphasis and values around multiculturalism.

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We have learned a lot about the TRC. Image sourced from:

When we began to talk about the culture and the values of both settlers and Aboriginals, I began to understand the thought process and emotions behind their actions. Talking about the backgrounds, beliefs, and especially the culture of the two groups helped me humanize them, and relate to them on a personal level. I began to see the settlers and Aboriginals through the lens of their culture; I began to see how the progress of time has changed their cultures in to what we are familiar with now. Culture gave a context for the actions taken and a clue to the emotions and thoughts behind the actions. I soon found it easier to imagine being a settler or Aboriginal at the time.

Cultural Transmission

One specific concept that really helped me connect with Canadian history on a personal level, and learn lessons that I could apply to my own life, was cultural transmission.

“[Cultural transmission] is the process of learning new information through socialization and engagement with those around you. The cultural transmission of knowledge is a broad concept, and it refers to knowledge that is gained through non-biological means; the theoretical basis of cultural transmission is that throughout our development, we acquire a considerable amount of knowledge simply by being present in our culture.” (White, 2011).

Cultural transmission is something that I value a lot, and something that is valued greatly by my family. A large part of cultural genocide is the disruption of cultural transmission, and seeing how important cultural transmission is to me, I could only imagine how bad the results of disrupting cultural transmission are.

Questions, Perspectives, and Goals

For our first blog post, we are supposed to answer a question, I have decided to explore: Why is cultural transmission valued and why is its disruption so bad?

To answer why cultural transmission should be valued and why its disruption is so bad, I will be looking at this question through the lens of development and attachment from a young age. I chose this perspective because it relates the topic directly to me as I am still developing, forming attachments, and learning about my culture. I also chose this lens because my mum always told me that attachment is the basis for all relationships. By understanding attachment, and how it is developed, I can better understand other relationships as well; for example, how the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal people has developed over time.

Through this blog post, I would like to better understand myself, the people around me, and the people I read about from history. I strive to learn the importance and value of culture to different people as well as how to respect other cultures. I would like to learn the importance of having cultural diversity, and the importance of developing an identity as a person, as a culture, and as a country. However, I think that my biggest goal is to learn to understand the multiplicity of history.

Impact of Healthy Cultural Transmission on a Developing Young Person

A lot of the information that we receive daily is through cultural transmission, even if we may not know it. The reason we understand what is socially acceptable, what social cues mean, body language, and other concepts that vary based on culture is because of cultural transmission. For example, no one told me that I have to tip when I go to a restaurant, but because that is what is expected from this culture, I do so by following the examples of friends and family.

Cultural transmission is important for young people to develop a healthy sense of self, and to become well adjusted. “The self develops within a culture, and the beliefs and practices of the culture are absorbed into the individual’s psychology,” (Baron, 2005). Better understanding the people around us, the world around us, and how it all works can help young people better understand themselves and how they fit into the context of their world.

Cultural transmission can create a safe sense of community for the people who are a part of the culture and can help young people to become more open-minded and accepting of others. “As individuals’ psychology is built [through cultural transmission] their behaviour and thinking allow them to live comfortable within the culture and to communicate more easily with others [from other cultures and their own],” (Baron, 2005). As people become more comfortable within their own culture (and with themselves) they can become more accepting of others and more willing to step out of their comfort zone as they continue to have a safe space within their culture.

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Cultural transmission can create a strong sense of community. Image sourced from:

Cultural transmission through a strong support system can aid in healthy physical, mental, and emotional development. “Secure attachments with [culture] have been linked to later social and cognitive competence… Children who have positive relationships with [their culture] are more likely to engage in the kinds of interactions that foster the language skills and other competencies required to succeed in school,” (Vasta, 2009).

Cultural transmission passes on traditions from generation to generation; installing the importance of cultural transmission itself. Oral story-telling traditions are very important to Aboriginal culture and this practice passes on the stories of band history to younger generations. The history of bands has been traditionally passed on orally for many years, with many stories still known today.

Impact of Cultural Oppression and Genocide on a Developing Young Person

Cultural oppression can result in isolation, little sense of self, little sense of community, difficulties in social adjustment, mental health issues, addictions, and devalued perceptions of culture. However, the biggest impact is that people may come to struggle with sense of identity and may be ashamed of their own culture (when their culture is perceived as less than by popular culture). The oppression of one generation continues to be passed down for many to come; parents who are cut off from their own culture may have attachment issues, when they raise their own children they pass on the same attachment issues they struggle with indirectly to the child. This can continue on for many generations and is why reconciliation for wronged ancestors is also very important, though it may be overlooked. Self –worth, support systems and the meaning that we give to life is very important, when these concepts are not explored within individuals and cultures, or views are forced onto people, it can lead to severe mental health and addiction issues as a coping method. Though Aboriginal culture experienced genocide, it is still alive today.Aboriginal, First Nations, and Métis populations had to endure extermination and assimilation efforts and were able to do so because of cultural values and strengths such as spirituality; respect for traditional values and ceremonies; extended family networks; allegiance to the family, community, and tribe; wisdom of the elders’ respect for the environment and the land; connection to the past, adaptability, and the promotion of such themes as belonging, mastery, independence and generosity. (Myers & Spencer, 2004).

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Aboriginal art depicting Canada. Image sourced from:

So What? What Now?

Understanding the role of cultural transmission throughout history is important to understanding how cultural influences and biases shape our narratives about history today. Identifying the impacts of cultural transmission helps to put the importance of culture in perspective. Looking at cultural transmission through the lens of development and attachment has helped me better relate to the narrative of Aboriginal oppression in Canada on a more personal level. I think that through this blog post, I have come to appreciate my own Romanian and Canadian culture more as well as have come to realize my Eurocentric (ethnocentric) bias. I have come to have more appreciation for the cultures that have undergone oppression and genocide but were revived and continue to live on today. I have come to learn more about the importance of developing identities as individuals, cultures, and as a country. Through the research I have done for this blog post, I have come to appreciate the multiplicity of history, and can see how patterns easily repeat themselves. This research has challenged me to look at the identity of Canada in a different way. Canadian identity and values have changed a lot over time; today we are known as an inclusive multicultural society, but we were not always that way as I have learned from social studies these past few weeks.



Baron, R. A. (2005) Exploring Social Psychology (4th Edition) Pearson. Toronto, ON

Myers, D. G. & Spencer, S. J. (2004) Social Psychology (2nd Edition) McGraw-Hill Ryerson Toronto, ON

Vasta, R. (2009) Child Psychology (2nd Edition) John Wiley & Sons Mississauga, ON

White, D. (2011). What is Cultural Transmission. Retrieved on 08/02/17 from

Other Resources: